Vitamins are catalysts. These catalysts are enhancing the rate of reaction, and they are initiating reactions. Water-soluble vitamins are B Complex and Vitamin C. Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Rumen bacteria produces the B Complex vitamins and Vitamin K.
Minerals are macro and microelements, macro minerals like calcium, and phosphorus are essential for bone formation. Micro minerals like ring magnesium etc. are essential for the function of vitamins.
Macro micro minerals are necessary for life. And most of these are available in nature but for higher production, they need to be supplemented. Minerals do not have an immediate effect, they have a long term effect.
They cannot be tested easily. Testing equipment’s for minerals like mass spectrophotometers are very costly. If your animals are higher producer animals and you are in mineral deficient areas then you should consult your veterinarian.
Hormones are present in minute quantities (Nanogram and pictogram) they are responsible for growth reproduction and maintaining a proper balance of living creatures. They are produced by ductless glands and brain intestine and prostate glands.
They can be protein fatty acid, catecholamine. The natural source of hormone is very costly however in veterinary science synthetic hormones are available for use. Reproductive hormones like GnRH analogue known as gonadotropin and prostaglandin available in the name of cloprostenol are freely available in the market and are used for assisted reproductive technology.
The steroid hormone like estrogen progesterone and cortisol are sed for reproductive disorders and metabolic disturbances. (This is for veterinarians but separately the use of mineral vitamins and specific hormones will also be coming forward.) Hormones are messenger molecules that come in function at a specific time for growth reproduction and milk production.