Minerals are essential requirement of cow. However, the deficiency of minerals can cause many disease and can rise to many complications in cow.
High yielding exotic cows need the proper amount of macro and micro minerals for their optimum production and reproduction. The availability of the minerals by vitamins and mineral mixture is shown below (Kalvimin Gold).
For example 1kg of Kalvimin Gold mineral mixture contains 260gm of calcium. As such 100gm of mineral mixture will contain 26gm of calcium. As shown that we need to give 35 gm of the mineral mixture so, we will be giving 26/3 = 8gm of mineral mixture.
Accordingly the rest of micro and macro minerals are adjusted for reproduction selenium, zinc, cobalt and iodine is essential plus the fat soluble vitamin A, D, E are also needed. The cow ration contains 1% mineral mixture as such with increase of the feed with the increase in milk production the minerals are adjusted.
For example if cow is producing 5 litres of milk then 1 kg concentrate and if cow is giving 10 litres of milk then we give 36gm of the concentrate and on 20 litres of milk produce we give 85gm of the mineral mixture. (Table of mineral mixture and vitamins).
However, in spite of providing optimum amount of minerals, the cow does not comes in heat there is a problem of repeat breeding. Therefore the additional minerals are given in the shape of bolus by different companies. One such bolus is provided by the MSD Company in the name of Bioplex, the details of Bioplex are given below, but briefly this has to be given daily for induction of estrus in common, for bringing cow in heat till the cow comes in heat.
For better conception after natural service or artificial insemination for a 7 day one tablet is given daily. The mineral and vitamin work only when there is no infection in the uterus. The infection may be on the endometrium of the uterus, the junction of the Corti region in the uterus or in the lume present in the lumen of the uterus. For this Ceftiofur 1mg/kg body weight IV, for five days is recommended.
This Ceftiofur is marketed by many companies such as MSD, which is marketing in the name of Tefrocef. I have been using these on my animals and I am quite satisfied and the same is reported by many other farmers. However, the conception takes place in the exotic cows, at environmental temperature of 20°C to 30°C. This temp recommendation applies to exotic cows not to the Desi cows.
The temperature maintenance of low temperature is very critical for 6 hours and then 6 days, so you are requested to perform artificial insemination in evening hours and maintain the room temperature of the cow at 20° for 6-7 days. Thereafter once the embryo is implanted in the uterus then it is slightly stable but up till 6 weeks no vaccination deworming, use of antibiotics should be done.
The foetus is fragile till 2-3 months however in 5 and 6 months onwards it is quite stable. For repeat breeding it is necessary that the cow should be inpositive energy balance.
For this, an adequate balanced ratio should be provided. The adequate balanced ration is available by many commercials in the market. However, you can make your own ration by adding 33% of each (grains, cake and bran). The ration should have at least 18 to 24% protein with 1 or 2% of the mineral mixture, the milk production and ration is given below.
|Cow milk production||Cow feed||Mineral Mixture|
|5 kg||1.0 kg||10 gm|
|6 kg||1.5 kg||15 gm|
|7 kg||2.0 kg||20 gm|
|8 kg||2.5 kg||25 gm|
|9 kg||3.0 kg||30 gm|
|10 kg||3.5 kg||35 gm|
|11 kg||4.0 kg||4. gm|
|12 kg||4.5kg||45 gm|
|13 kg||5.0 kg||50 gm|
|14 kg||5.5 kg||55 gm|
|15 kg||6.0 kg||60 gm|
|16 kg||6.5 kg||65 gm|
|17 kg||7.0 kg||70 gm|
|18 kg||7.5 kg||75 gm|
|19 kg||8.0 kg||80 gm|
|20 kg||8.5 kg||85 gm|
|21 kg||9.0 kg||90 gm|
|22 kg||9.5 kg||95 gm|
|23 kg||10.0 kg||100 gm|
|24 kg||10.5 kg||105 gm|
|25 kg||11.0 kg||110 gm|