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100 Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) on Dairy Animals

UK Atheya / Buffalo General Information, Cattle General Information, Management, Others /
Dairy animals

1. What is Brazilian Gir Cow?

Brazil has imported Gir Cows from India 100 years back. These cows were imported for beef production, but some of the cows were producing a good quantity of milk because their lactation length was long over 305 days. These Gir cow are heat resistant tick resistant and no reproductive problem. First, they developed these cows by selective breeding and then by using progeny tested bulls. To their surprise, these cows are very high producing cow. Best Brazilian Gir cows are producing over 100-liter milk but may cow were giving 50 liters of milk a day.

Indian Cow Breeds

2. What is frozen semen?

Since 1930 the use of glycerol in preserving semen at -300°C in liquid nitrogen has provided means of transporting and preserving semen for a long time. Without use of electricity semen can be kept for over 30 years to be used to produce cow. The a bull may die but its semen is available for use.

3. What is the cost of sexed semen?

At present sexed semen is costing 1000 to 3000 rupees. But the indigenous production of sexed semen has also started. So cost is likely to go down by 50% is sexed semen is easily available.

4. What is the drawback of keeping buffaloes for Dairying?

  • Buffalos are a seasonal breeder.
  • Buffalos mature in 3-4 years.
  • Buffalo has heat detection problem.
  • Buffalo has long calving interval.

5. What are the advantages of keeping buffalo?

This can be sold at a later age. Their males are used for transportation. Their milk has more fat. Buffalo can survive on rough fodder. Many buffalos are producing 20 liters milk a day. Buffalos can survive in flood.

6. What is imported frozen semen?

The semen of progeny tested bulls of North American and European breed is available in India. The semen from USA the American Breeder Association India (ABS India) is available. The cost depends on the yield of the mother, it is costing Rs 50 to 150 per dose. The ABS has distribution center all over India. The result of the semen is encouraging.

7. What is sexed semen?

When the cow is inseminated there is 50% chance of getting a female calf. But with sexed semen, the chances are 90% of getting a female calf.

8. What is impact of sexed semen?

The rate of replacement of hard will be doubled by use of sexed semen.

9. Disadvantages of sexed semen?

  • High cost.
  • It works in Hifer.
  • It is not so easy available.

10. Is sexed semen of Sahiwal, Gir, and Murrah Buffalko is available?

Yes.

11. Purchase of minimum doses of sexed semen?

You will have to purchase at least 10 doses.

12. What is the cost of unsexed semen?

This costs around 10-20 rupees per dose, in government supply. However, ABS semen costs 100-300 rupees.

13. Is sexed semen is freely available?

Yes, Contact ABS India in your state.

14. What is the cost of liquid nitrogen jar?

20 Liter Jar costs 30,000 rupees, and 50 liter Jar costs 50,000 rupees.

15. What is the cost of AI gun?

About 300 rupees.

16. What hormon we should use for improving conception?

Use GnRH which is available in the market by name of Receptacle (MSD) and progulate (Vibrac).

17. What is the life of sperm in female reproductive track in cow?

72 hours.

18. What is the life of ovum in reproductive tract?

24 hours.

19. Does high temperature above 30°C affect conception in exotic cows?

Yes.

20. After how many days cow comes in Estrus?

21 days.

21. After calving at what time cow should fall pregnant?

Within 60-90 days.

22. What is repeat breeding?

After repeated insemination, every 21 days if the cow does not conceive and is coming in heat again and again then it is repeated breeding.

23. What should be the weight of Jersey and Holstein heifer (Bachiya) at first coception?

Jersey 200 kg, Holstein 250 kg.

24. At what age heifer is inseminated?

12 to 15 months.

25. How much time cow and buffalo takes for calving?

Cow 270 days (9 months 10 days), Buffalo 310 days (10 months and 10 days).

26. For FMD what vaccination should be given?

A single shot vaccine against FMD, HS, AND BQ
RAKSHA – TRIOVAC. Visit ukatheya.com for more details on vaccination.

Primary Vaccination at 4 months, a booster after 1 month.
Re-vaccination in every 6 months alternatively with Raksha Ovac and Raksha Triovac.

27. Is there a vaccine for HS?

HS an acute and highly fatal disease with approximately 60% mortality.
So RAKSHA HS is the solution it is vaccinated once in ytear.

28. Is there a vaccine available for Brucellosis and Theileria?

Yes. For more details on vaccination visit ukatheya.com

29. Is there medicine for flies and ticks(External parasites)?

You can apply “Pour On” on the body of the animal.

30. Is there any injection for internal and external parasite?

You can use Ivermectin, consult your veterinarian.

31. What drug is used for de-worming of calf?

Panacure it works on lung worm stomach worm and intestinal worms, consult your veterinarian.

32. What is the difference between human and cows digestion?

In human the digestion is enzymatic, whereas in cow it is microbial, cows can digest cellulose with the help of microbes, but human can not.

33. What is the effect of feeding excessive sugar or maize to the cow?

It will develop acidity. pH 5.7 in rumen. Acidosis will make cow sick.

34. What we should to to overcome acidity?

Feed Yeast and Soda bicarm to your cow. You can give Rumicare.

35. What is Bloat?

Bloat is accumulation of air in rumen. Use antihistaminic and anti-bloat drugs, immediately contact your veterinarian, and

36. What is the zone of comfort for exotic cows?

0° to 25°C, See housing of cattle on www.ukatheya.com

37. What is thermal humidity index?

Thermal humidity index is measure of stress on cow.

डेयरी के असफल होने के कारण

38. What is regurgitation?

After eating bhusa it goes to rumen and by regurgitation it is brought back to mouth where it is masticated by rumination.

Cattle Nutrition

39. How many time cow ruminate?

About 20 to 25 times.

40. How long cow ruminate in a day?

About 5 hr.

41. How long a cow eats fodder?

About 3 hr.

42. Can we feed paper in place of bhusa?

Yes.

43. What Indian Milk Cow Breeds Are Promoted?

Sahiwal and Gir

44. Why Sahiwal and Gir are promoted?

Because of of their milk producing potential and lactation length.

45. WHAT IS KANAKRAJ COW?

It is a cow from desert of Gujarat.

Indian Cow Breeds

46. WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT KANKARAJ COW

They can tolerate 50°C temperature.

47. How these cows survive without water in desert?

Desert cows have fat and melting of fat, known as hydrolysis is a source of water in the desert.

48. IS THESE INDIAN DAIRY BREED ARE CROSSED WITH HOLSTEIN?

Yes.

49. WHAT IS PERFORMANCE OF HIGH BREED CROSSES?

50 to 75% of crossbreeds are good, they are heat resistant and no reproductive problems.

50. WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF WE CROSS JERSEY WITH THE HOLSTEIN?

50% crosses are black and 75% crosses are black and white.

Indian Cow Breeds

51. WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF WE CROSS HOLSTEIN WITH GRI?

You get GRILANDIO cow.

52. WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT JERSEY COW?

  • Early maturity
  • High fat % equal to buffalo milk fat 7% or 8%.
  • No reproductive problem.

53. HIGHEST FAT% IN BUFFALO?

Bhadawari buffalo 14% and Jafrabadi buffalo 18%.

54. HIGHEST MILK PRODUCTION OF HOLSTEIN AND JERSY IN INDIA?

70 kg per day holstein and jersey 35 kg/day.

55. OLDEST COW IN WORLD?

Bertha 39 years born in world war 2nd and died in 1992.

Big bertha

56. PRODUCTION IN BUFFALO?

27 kg/day 6000 kg in lactation, buffalo is LAADO.

57. COSTLIEST BUFFALO OF INDIA

Laxmi of Haryana 25 lakh.

58. BEST BEST BUFFALO BULL OF INDIA?

Maharaja, Sultan and Samrat.

59. MAXIMUM MILK PRODUCTION HOLSTEIN IN WORLD?

Eleven lactation on average 22000 litre 22000×11 = 242000 litres (2.4 lac litres of milk).

60. WICH EUROPIAN BREED PRODUCE A2 BETA CASEIN MILK?

Guernsey cow.

Faq, guernsey

61. WHICH INDIAN BREED OF COW DOES NOT SUFFER FROM FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE?

Amrit mahal and Angol.

62. HOW MUCH GAS IS PRODUCED IN RUMEN IN A DAY?

500 litre/day.

63. WHAT GASEES ARE PRODUCED IN RUMEN?

Carbon-dioxide and methane.

64. HOW MUCH SALIVA IS ADDED TO RUMEN/DAY?

150 litres.

65. WHAT MAKES PROTEIN IN RUMEN ?

Microbes from oil cake and nitrogen.

65. WHY COW URINE IS NOT SMELLING BAD?

Because urea is recycle through saliva to rumen for protein synthesis.

66. WHAT IS BLOAT?

When the air does not escape rum-en then there is blot.

67. WHAT IS BALANCE FEED ?

In concentrate 33% each is grain, oil cake and choker plus 1% mineral than the feed balanced.

68. WHAT WILL HAPPEN IF WE CHANGE THE RATIO OF GRAIN?

Ther will be acidity. The cow will be sick.

69. HOW TO OVER COME ACIDITY ?

Give yeast and soda bicarb.

70. HOW MUCH BHUSA A COW CAN EAT ?

3% of its body weight say 10 to 12 kg /day.

71. HOW MUCH CONCENTRATED , DANA A COW MAY EAT?

10 TO 12 KG/DAY.

72. DOES HIGH TEMPERATURE REDUCES FEED INTAKE?

Yes at 40°C it gets 50% reduced.

FORMATION OF MILK IN UDDER
The temperature given in this picture is in Fahrenheit units.

73. DOES HIGH-TEMPERATURE AFFECTS WATER INTAKE?

There is a 50% increase in water intake (Holstein cow)

74. HOW DESI COWS SURVIVE IN DESSERT?

The fat is broken down and water is formed. Camel can live in dessert for 21 days without water.

75. CAN WE FEED PADDY STRAW INSTEAD OF WHEAT STRAW TO COWS AND BUFFALO?

The paddy straw is infested with mould if paddy is harvested in rain. The mould is very toxic. So it may harm.

76. CAN WE CHANGE CONCENTRATE MIXTURE SUDDENLY?

No in ruminant the digestion is microbial and microbial poplation does not chang over night . So change the concentrate feeding gradually.

77. AT WHAT AGE THE RUMEN IS FORMED IN CALVES?

At  5 month of age. No urea  to calves till the age of 5 month.

78. WHAT SHOULD WE DO IN CASE OF UREA TOXICITY?

Give vinegar immediately.

79. IS THERE UREA MOLLASES LICK AVAILABLE ?

Yes by name of lick CHATTANBHATI is available, You can make your own lick see internet for further details, it is very useful.

80. WHAT IS PHOTO-PERIOD?

Photoperiod refers to day length. In summer it is long and in winter it short, in northern hemespher.

81. WHAT IS THE IMPORTANCE OF PHOTO-PERIOD IN DAIRY ANIMAL?

Cow breed in long days and buffalo in short day length period.

82. IS PHOTO-PERIOD RELATED TO REPEATED BREEDING?

Yes, very much. See ukatheya.com REPEATED BREEDING.

83. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE IN DIFFERENT TYPE OIL CACKE?

  • Mustard oil cake, pungent smell and 30% protein.
  • Cottonseed oil cake, 30 % protein available in the cotton growing area.
  • Soya cake 50 % protein available in central India. Best for high milk producing cow.
  • Groundnut oil cake 40% protein. Gives good flavour to milk. But mostly available in Gujarat.

84. Can we produce 100 litre milk from cows?

Yes if you follow the following.

  • Housing, maintaining 20°C to 25°C temperature (the zone of comfort for Holstein is – 2°C to 20°C)
  • Best Holstein semen with liquid nitrogen jar.
  • Proper vaccination and de-worming.
  • Diagnosis of blood protozoa, particularly Theileria.
  • Silage and balanced feed.
  • Somatic counting for mastitis.
  • Milking machine.
  • Bulk milk cooler.
  • For other detail see ukatheya.com

85. HOW DOES COW DIGEST BHUSA?

The cow rumen has microbe. Protozoa and fungi this secret cellulase enzyme this digest cellulose, the bhusa or the grass, acetic butyric and propionic acids are formed which make fat and lactose

86. WHAT IS GRASS FED COWS MILK?

When the cow is feed grass no concentrate mixture. Then omega 3 and 6 fatty acid are synthesized by cow and secreted in milk, which are good for brain. When we feed grains then omega 3 and omega 6 formation does not take place. Further the grain is treated with chemicals, and is not good for human health. So grass fed cows milk is healthy milk.

87. DO COW NEED VITAMIN ?

Cow rumen microbes can synthesize vitamin B. And vitamin A, they get from green fodder and the D vitamin from sun. If grass fed then omeg 3 and 6 essential fatty acid they can synthesize. The problem arises when cow are fed bhusa and kept in side away from sun. So for high producing cows vitamin A and D and calcium may be required.

88. WHICH ORGAN IS IMPORTANT THE RUMEN OR LIVER ?

Both are important but rumen stands first because protein, glucose and the acetic, butyric for fat formation are formed in the rumen, and processed in liver.

89. HOW CAN WE KEEP RUMEN HEALTHY ?

  • By maintaining pH 6.0 by feeding yeast and soda by carb.
  • By not milking cow after 7 months of pregnancy.

90. DOES MASTITIS CAUSES REPEAT BREEDING?

Yes. The cell wall of microbes infecting the udder does not allow conception.

91. WHAT IS THE HARM IF WE DO NOT DRY THE COW AT 7 MONTH OF PREGNANCY?

  • Less milk at calving.
  • For better immunity.
  • Lameness foot problem.
  • Rumen repair for better digestion in next lactation.
  • Regeneration of udder cells.

92. HOW MUCH BLOOD NEED TO SUPPLY FOR FORMATION OF ONE ML OF MILK?

500 ml. If you will groom your cow then the blood flow will increase and so milk production will increase.

93. WHAT IS MILK VEIN?

See figure below.

milk vein in cow, FAQ
Milk vein in cow

94. WHAT IS SNF?

SNF Stand for solid non-fat in milk 80% is water and 4 to 8 % fat and the rest is SNF.

95. WHAT IS DIFFERENCE IN COW AND BUFFALO MILK?

See the chart below.

Buffalo and cow milk comparison, frequently asked questions.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN COW AND BUFFALO MILK

96. WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT  CAMEL MILK?

It contains 3 times higher concentration of Vitamin C than the cow’s milk and iron content is 10 times higher. Vitamin A, vitamin B2 and lactase are in small quantities. It contains potassium, magnesium, iron, copper, manganese, sodium and zinc in large amounts. In India, research is done on TB and diabetes in Bikaner. It is also a medicine for allergic disease in children. The camel is mated in 4 to 5 years and its baby stays in the stomach for up to 13 months.


97. WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT HORSE MILK?

Horse milk is used in Italy and Southern Europe. In this milk, there is the property of developing resistance against the disease, in contrast to the disease, and it contains lysozyme and lactose, protein, which protects infants from diseases and reduces their disease. And in addition to lactose, proteins and salts, there is omega-3 lactic acid. It is used in cosmetic work and skin diseases. It sells nowadays in Bengaluru and Gurgaon in India, at a price of 2,000 rupees per litre.

98. WHAT IS GOOD ABOUT SHEEP MILK?

The fat content of sheep milk is higher than the cows and goat milk. Go to the 100th question for further details on sheep milk.

99. What is good about goat milk?

Goat milk is very good for skin, it is rich in Vitamin A, essential fatty acid and triglycerides.

100. Average milk composition chart for different species.

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