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UK Atheya / Cattle, Cattle Fodder, Cattle General Information, Cattle Milk Production, Dairy /

Udder of cow is for formation of milk. The external and microscopic structure of cow is given below.

The alveoli shown above is unit of milk formation. 10-100 alveoli are at one place. A alveoli is surrounded by blood capillaries. The milk nutrient are passed from capillary to alveolar cells. The alveolar cells pass nutrient to lumen of alveoli when  alveoli is full  the basket cell under the influence of oxytocin contract and milk goes to duct and then to the cistern. When 500 ml blood passes through udder than 1 ml milk is formed.

Milk is formed all the time and milking cow is necessary for good milk production. The cows are milked at 12 hour interval.

Mastitis, cow udder

In the rumen fodder is fermented, producing volatile fatty acids (acetic, butyric and propionic). Propionic acid forms glucose, whereas acetic and buyric acid forms fat. The protein is formed by bacteria. The flow diagram of rumen fermentation is given below.



Oxytocin is peptide (protein) having ten amino acid. It is release from hypothalamus in brain. From hypothalamus via nerve it comes to posterior pituitary. From posterior pituitary via blood it is circulated in blood, and it reaches basket cells in the udder. Through nerves and in body it is circulated through blood. Sound, touch, sight, light or love cause release of Oxytocin. Its release is short and it works on basket cells of milk alveoli.

In cow it comes in wave for ten to five minutes. So, milking machine completes milking is less than 10 minutes. If cow fails to release milk then Oxytocin has to be injected. In veterinary science Oxytocin is used in cow, buffalo, horse, pig and sheep for uterine contraction for expelling fetus outside womb once cervix is open. It is used for letdown of milk.

Watch my video for more details on Oxytocin


One ml of injection has 2 IU oxytocin as per USP. It has to be kept at 15°C to 20°C.


  • At time of delivery.
  • For cleaning after matritis.
  • After surgery of utters.
  • Treatment of mastitis.
  • Let down of milk.


  • Horse and cow delivery dose 100 IU Intramuscular or Intravenous.
  • Pig or sheep 30-50 IU Intramuscular or Intravenous
  • Letdown of milk Cow 10-20 IU Intramuscular.


  • Not to be used if there is dystokia.
  • Delivery dose should not be used for milk letdown.
  • Oxytocin used in animal should not be used in human.
  • To my knowledge oxytocin has nothing to do with cancer. It can affect conception if delivery dose is used for letdown of milk.

How long cow gives milk

After calving the cow start giving milk. Then at 7 month pregnancy it is dried off. Standard lactation is 305 day or 10 month (we say 305 day because 5 month are at 31 days). In a lactation dairy cow like Holstein and Jersey gives over 6000 liters of milk. However Indian cow give from 700 to 2000 liters per lactation. The lactation yield, feed in take, body weight and weight of developing fetus is shown in graph below.

The graph is showing milk production, weight of the cow, sweet consumption, and the weight of fetus during lactation period

How cow is dried

At 7 month of pregnancy there is sudden cut in ration and fodder and cow is not milked. Milk retention causes pressure and the lactation is seized. Antibiotics are infused in teat. The cow rumen, foot and udder new cells are regenerated during the dry period.

Use Of Milking Machine

Milking machine is getting very popular and in 50000 to 100000 rupees you can have a good machine. A machine can milk the cow in 5-6 minute. The use of generator for milking machine is must because the low voltage will cause problems.

All about A1, A2 Beta Casein Milk

Protein is synthesized by genes. Genes are made up of bases Guanine, Cytosine, Thymine and Adenine. This basis code for a amino acid when amino acids are joined together they from protein. The casein is a protein with calcium.

If gene code is disturbed then the protein is wrongly formed. Beta casein A1 has the mutated gene. Mutation means that A.T.C.G. sequence is changed. Thus A1 protein has histidine whereas in A2 there is proline in place of histidine. This is shown in figure below.

When milk is consumed by human beings during digestion of milk, A1 Beta Casein forms the casomorphin. This casomorphin is responsible for diabetes, brain disease, development of children and sudden death in children. When A1 casein is digested than intestine secrets DPP4 which causes problems. This is not the case in A2 Beta Casein.

The gene of Holstein is mutated in 90% of Holstein cows and 60% Jersey cow. Among the European cow Gunenshire cow gene is not mutated. It is of A2 type. So, to say all European breed A1 Casein gene is false.

Now, A2 Casein gene, Holstein and jersey cow are selected (because 90% in Holstein is A1 rest of the 10% are A2). So, we can select A2 Holstein and breed them. Infect A2 Holstein semen is available with ABS India a American supplier. The same in the case with Jersey, only 60% jersey are A1 rest 40% are A2 type, so we can breed the A2 Jersey cow. Testing of the cow A1 or A2 is done from blood or milk and it is complicated.

For More Details On A1 and A2 Milk

I know in IIT Roorkee this is being done. Unless these finding are not with us we cannot reject or accept a cow. Thus a proper screening is needed.

Our desi cow, goat, buffalo, sheep and camel has A2 gene. Out of the European breeds of cows the Guernsey cows milk is A2 type (Shown below). as shown below out of our total milk production, 50% comes from buffalo, 25 % comes from desi cow and goat and only 25% from exotic cross, So the possibility of A1 Beta Casein milk supply is less than 20%.

The breeding program of A2 cow is on. The A2 bull semen of Holstein Jersey bull is available.

It is good to be alarmed but we should not be over alarmed because it is economic issue all over world and steps are taken for eradication A1 casein milk. Other details you can find out from National Dairy Research Institute Karnal India.

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