In tropics where the atmos temperature is around 30, mesophilic range, milk is preserved as paneer. For making paneer milk is heated above 80°C and pH of milk is made acidic by adding citric acid or lemon, initially the water separated after making paneer is used, by changing pH the protein coagulates and the coagulant is separated by passing the coagulant through a muslin cloth. The coagulant is pressed and paneer is ready. This paneer can be kept at 4°C for a week thus 10 or 7 kg of milk is reduced to 1 kg of paneer.
However, for long-time preservation of milk, cheese is made. For making cheese milk is added with rennin enzyme. Which has been obtained from calf stomach. But now this rennin is produced biotechnologically by microbes.
After adding the enzyme the milk at 30-37C it immediately coagulates this coagulated milk is separated and is known as cottage cheese. For making a particular type of cheese a particular microbe is added and this is incubated at 4C (psychrophilic range) for 6 months. Thus it is very easy to break cheese in temperate snowbound areas like Europe and America. This cheese can be stored at 4°C for a very long time.
From above it is clear that paneer and cheese are two different products. Previously Indians were not eating cheese because it was made by using renin from cow stomach but now they are eating cheese because the rennin is made biotechnologically. The low-temperature incubation at 4ۥC is also made possible in a bigger plant established by Amul.
Dahi and Curd are altogether different than cheese and paneer. For making curd you need to add curd making the culture at 37°C for 12 hours. The curd can be stored at 4°C for a week. Thus from above, it is clear that paneer is not cheese and curd is a totally different form of cheese and paneer.