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100 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) on Dairy Animals PART – 2

UK Atheya / Agriculture, Cattle, Dairy, Milk Production /
Dairy animals

Difference between cheese and curd?

Curd is formed by microbial growth, in this case a lactose is broken down into lactic acid, and this reaction takes place at 37°C. Whereas, cheese making is enzymatic reaction, the movement enzyme rennin is added to the milk is curdled. It takes few minute then the curdle milk is separated and desired microorganism are added and incubated for 6 months at 4°C.

Where from the rennin comes?

Previously the rennin was collected form cow calf stomach so Indians were not eating cheese, now rennin enzyme is made in microbes by genetic engineering so we eat cheese.

What is lactose allergy?

The lactose milk sugar is broken down by lactase enzyme and this is absent in Chinese and Escimos, so they cannot break down lactose, thus in intestine lactose causes reverse osmosis and diarrhoea is the result.

When crossbreeding was started in India?

During British time in the world war first that is in 1914 British colonies the crossbreeding was followed.

What Indian breeds of cow was used for crossbreeding?

Sahiwal, Gir, Kankraj, and Tharparkar were used.

What were the drawbacks of crossbreeding?

When 50% crosses were made, there was increase in milk production but in 75% crosses the milk production was declined.

When first crossbreeding was attempted?

Crossbreeding was attempted in 1955 by Indoswiss project, Indo Dansih project and Indo German project on the government form using bulls for semen by liquid semen.

What is operation flood?

For running the milk plant the supply of powdered milk was used for milk supply in cities, this was operation flood.

When crossbreeding was started at farmers door, using frozen semen and AI?

In 1961 at West Bengal and in Karnataka.

When intensive cattle development project was started?

This project was started in 1964, and in 1969 official policy for crossbreeding was approved.

According to 2007 senses, what was the cow population?

99.1 million.

What was the breedable population of cow in 2007?

72.2 million.

What was the numbers of crossbreed cow in 2007?

16.1 million (40% of the total population).

Why crossbreeding could not make ad away?

Lake of crossbreed bulls.

What exotic breeds were introduced in the beginning of crossbreeding program?

Jersey Holstein, Red Dane, Brown Swiss.

Now what breeds are used for crossbreeding?

Holstein and Jersey.

What is the predominant breed in AI program?

Holstein Friesian.

Why Holstein Friesian is famous?

It can give milk up to 35-40 litres per day.

What are the reasons for commercialization of dairy farms?

Milk marketing and mechanization of Agriculture, increased mean for transportation.

What are essentials for maintaining exotic cows?

  • Blood protozoan (Theilaria, Bebasia and Trypenosomisis)
  • Heat stress.
  • Availability of green fodder.
  • Deworming and vaccination.
  • Death of new born calves (Only 10% of the new-born calves survives).

When the crossbreeding is started in India?

In 1910 at Bangalore Imperial Research Institute.

When AI at nanny agriculture has started?

In 1924.

Which state is suitable for crossbreeding?

Kerala, Punjab and Andhra Pradesh.

What is the percentage of crossbreeds in Punjab and Kerala?

70% in Kerala and 80% in Punjab (1997).

What is the percentage of crossbreeds in U.P, West Bengal and Tamilnadu?


What is the growth rate of crossbreed?


What are the new technologies in dairy development?

Use of sexed semen from different bulls.

How can be produce progeny tested bulls?

By using Embryo Transfer Technology.

How can be overcome the problem of slaughtering in cows and buffalos?

By producing meat by tissue culture techniques in Petry dishes.

Do cow and buffalos are responsible for Global warming?

Yes, they produce 500 litres of methane and CO2

What is the different between livestock and human?

See the figure below.

Ruminants can digest cellulose but monogastrics can not
Source of the picture: click here

What is the size of spermatozoa and egg?

Spermatozoa is of 10 micron, and ovum is 200 microns, see the figure below.

What is dystokia?

Dystokia is when at the time of calving the birth canal is open but the calf is not coming out.

What is prolapse of uterus?

See figure below.

What is vaginal prolapse?

See figure.

Abortion in Cows
Picture showing prolapse of vagina

What is retained placenta?

See figure.

Abortion in Cows

Read more here Abortion in Cattle

What is colostrum?

Colostrum is the milk after the birth of cow.

Why we should feed colostrum to the new born calf?

Colostrum has antibodies which gives protection form disease.

After calving how soon we should give colostrum to the calf?

Just after calving, because colostrum contains antibodies for first 12 hours, after birth.

What is cutting of naval?

Cutting of the naval cord and its disinfection with iodine is necessary.

What is naval ill?

When the naval cord is not cut properly and sterilize the calf suffers of naval ill in which there is swelling of joints.

What is milk fever and ketosis?

Milk fever is due to lake of calcium whereas, Ketosis is due to lake of glucose, and these are metabolic disturbances.

Is milk fever and Ketosis is curable?

Yes, by giving Calcium and Glucose intra-vein, consult your veterinarian.

What is metritis?

Metritis is infection of uterus. It can be trated with antibiotic, consult your veterinarian.

Does metritis affects milk production?

Yes. There is puss in the uterus which is smelling bad and the animal might have a mild fever though eating properly. Metritis is usually occurred after calving.

Can metritits causes repeated breeding?

If materitis is not treated then cow will be repeat breeder.

What should be the room temperature at the time of calving?

It should be 25 to 30°C.

How can we know that calf is in hypothermia (low temperature)?

Put your finger in the mouth of calf, if it is cold than the calf should be given hot water and should be covered with woollen clothes.

What is meconium?

Meconium is the first feces of the calf, after calving.

What to do if the calf have 5-6 teeth’s (extra teeth) at the time of calving?

Cut the extra teeth and apply iodine or antiseptic.

At what stage Dehorning of new born calf should be done?

Within 10-15 days.

What is the main cause of death of exotic calf?

Exotic calves mostly die due to theileria.

Is theileria in new born comes from mother’s womb?

Yes it comes from mother womb, not from the ticks.

Is it necessary to feed calf from bottle?

Calf weight 30-40 kg and it needs only 3-4 kg milk per day. If you will allow calf to suck milk, than it will unnecessary milk, and might fall sick.

What is the weaning age of calf?

The exotic calves are weaned just after calving.

What should be the room temperature for calf?

There is no thermo regulation in calves, till one month so it should be kept at 30°C.

What should be the room temperature of calving animals?

100°F or 30°C.

Should we use cooler on calving calf?


Can we give bath to the calved cow with cold water?

No. Clean you cow with hot water at 40-50°C.

After calving when we should milk the cows?

Just after calving.

Should we wait for removal of placenta for milking?

No. Take the first milk or colostrum and feed it to calf immediately.

How much colostrum we should feed to calf?

10% of its body weight (3-4 kg). Extra colostrum can be given to other calves.

What pseudo pregnancy?

Pseudo pregnancy is when cow is not pregnant and not showing any sign of heat.

Heat can be induced or not?

Heat can be induced with the help of hormones, consult your veterinarian.

After calving when cow comes in heat?

It comes in heat after one month.

Can we get inseminated after one month?

In second or third heat you should inseminated.

Within what period cow should fall pregnant?

Within 100 days.

After falling pregnant, is cow continue to give milk?

Yes, cow will give milk even up to next calving (Holstein and Jersey).

What is the standard lactation yield of cow?

305 days. Because out of 10 months 5 months are 31 that’s why we say 305 days, this is standard lactation.

What is the lactation yield of desi cows?

Desi cow gives at the most 3000 litre of milk but the draft type of cows only gives 1000 litres.

What is the lactation yield of Holstein in India?

7000 to 8000 in 305 days.

What is the average lactation yield of American an Israel Holstein?

The average lactation yield is 10,000 in 305 days.

What is the maximum yield of Holstein in world?

32,700 Litres in 365 days. Highest milk producing cow in 2017 was Goldwyn Britany.
Source: https://www.holstein.ca/Public/en/Awards-Lists/Cow_of_the_Year/Cow_of_the_Year

What is the maximum yield of Jersey in world?

18000 litres in 365 days.

Which breed of cows produces A2 milk?

Guernsey cow (see the picture below).

FAQ on dairy animals

What is embryo transfer?

Cow gives one calf but by giving hormone so may ovum are shed by ovary, and these ova’s are fertilized by semen and then flushed out of the cow and placed in various cows. So it is a method of photocopying cow. So many good cows can produced in 9 months. Otherwise cow in its lifetime gives 7 calves in 7 years.

What are the cloned cows?

From one mammary cell of the cow, calf produced, in this no male is required.

Has India produced cloned animals?

In NDARI Karnal and Hissar, cloned buffalos are produced and in Kashmir cloned goat is produced. (Picture)

Can we have controlled in cows?

We can synchronize heat of several cows on one day. Thus they will calve on our will on the same day.

What is nymphomania?

When a cow remains in heat all time, it is called nymphomaniac cow, this is due to cystic ovary.

What is the gestation period of cows and buffalo?

Cow – 270 + 10 days, Buffalo 310 + 10.

What is the chromosome number of cow?


What is the chromosomes no in buffalo?

Some buffalo 48, River buffalo (Murrah) 50.

Can we cross swim buffalo with River buffalo?

Yes we can but male are sterile.

Can we cross cattle with buffalo?


What is cattalo?

Cattalo is a cross of cow and Byson.

What is the lifespan of Desi cattle and buffalo?

20 Years.

What is the life of Holstein and Jersey cow?

5-6 Years.

What is the zone of comfort of exotic cows?

-2°C to +20°C.

What is the zone of comfort for desi cow?


What is special about Sahiwal Cow?

It is heat resistant, disease resistant and tick resistant.

Why Sahiwal, Gir, and Red Sindhi is considered for cross breeding?

Because, their lactation length is 305 days.

What is the lactation length of draft type cows?

150 days.

What is special about desi cow’s milk?

It is a grass-fed cow’s milk so it has omega 3 and omega 6. In dessert for water requirement body fat is hydrolysed so it comes in milk.

Are desi cows are seasonal?

Yes they calve in the beginning of the summer season near holi.

What is the disadvantages of natural service?

Brucellosis and Trypanosomasis these disease causes sterility in cow herd.

What is ruminal tympany?

Accumulation of air in rumen is known as ruminal tympany.

What is traumatic pericarditis?

When animal eats some nail, then it goes to reticulum and from there it hits heart, in such condition animal keeps standing, and ultimately dies.

What is stringhalt?

Stringhalt the back leg is straight and it does not bend. This can be treated surgically.

How can we check mastitis?

By California Mastitis Test, and Somatic cell count for counting leucocytes in milk.

Are there milking machines with somatic cells counter?

Yes, there are but costly.

What are the blood protozoan disease of exotic cows?

Babesia, Theileria, and Trypanosomisis.

Is there a drug for control of external parasites and flies?

Yes, you can use pour on, consult your veterinarian.

Read more about vaccination in dairy animals